131 Dimensional Calibration Procedures

For Whom Intended  This course is intended for personnel involved in metrology, instrumentation and various testing activities. It is designed to provide a basic understanding of the methodology of calibration of measuring and test equipment.

calibersBrief Course Description  The course commences with an introduction and review of some basic terminology, then covers systems of units, measurement standards, traceability and types of error. The course then covers calibration standards and documents such as ANSI/NCSL Z540 requirements and ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 17025. The use of techniques as “virtual” standards is discussed. A review is made of statistical analysis and uncertainty analysis, distributions and explanation of common definitions and notations used. Technical requirements in calibration procedures are covered, with content requirements.

The course then covers calibration equipment and techniques in detail, starting with a discussion of mass and weight, including types of weighing devices and mass measurement techniques. Dimensional calibration is covered next, with precision instruments such as Vernier and digital calipers, height gages, micrometers and other devices. This section also covers measurement of force, torque, viscosity and hardness. Next comes a unit on fixed gauging, including Go and No Go gauging, and a detailed discussion of laser interferometry applications in calibration.

Physical standards are discussed in detail, starting with reference planes such as surface plates and optical flats, and moving on to gage blocks, linear measurement devices, comparators and high-precision cylinders. The discussion of calibration of angle measurement devices includes autocollimators, theodolites, levels and inclinometers.

The calibration of cylindrical rings, internal cylinders, thread gages is covered next. Other geometries and dimensional nightmares such as cylinders, threads and spheres are discussed. The course concludes with a discussion of the requirements of ISO Standard 17025 as they apply to calibration laboratories. The instructor presents the course aided by overhead transparencies. Students are expected to participate in classroom discussion and exercises.

Diploma Programs  This is a recommended elective in TTi’s Metrology/Calibration Specialist (MCS) Diploma Program and may be used as an optional course for any TTi diploma program.

Prerequisites  There are no definite prerequisites, but TTi’s courses Electronics for Non-Electronic Engineers, Metrology Concepts and Instrumentation for Test and Measurement would be helpful.

Text  Each student will receive 180 days access to the on-line electronic course workbook. Renewals and printed textbooks are available for an additional fee.

Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs  Class hours/days for on-site courses can vary from 14-35 hours over 2-5 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Course Outline

Chapter 1 - Introduction and Focus

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  • Metrology Terminology
  • Scope of Metrology
  • Measurement Processes
  • Systems of Units
  • Measurement Standards
  • Traceability
  • Measurement error
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Uncertainty

Chapter 2 - Technical Requirements in Calibration Standards

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  • US Government Agencies
  • Unified Standards
  • Technical requirements: ANSI Z540-1-1994
  • NIST
  • Procedures and Accreditation
  • ISO Standard 17025
  • Calibration requirements in ISO 9000 documents
  • Quality Standards
  • Techniques used as “Virtual” standards
  • Reversal Methods
  • Level
  • Straightness & Flatness
  • Closure
  • Autocollimator
  • Traceability

Chapter 3 - Review of Statistical Analysis and Uncertainty

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Uncertainty Components Statistics of Measurement
  • Standard Deviations
  • Arithmetic Mean
  • Cumulative Distribution (cdf) and Probability Density (pdf) Functions
  • Confidence Levels
  • Measurement Decision Risks and Strategies

Chapter 4 - Technical Requirements in Calibration Procedures: Content requirements

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Chapter 5 - Mass and Weight; Buoyancy

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  • Newton’s Second Law
  • Law of Gravitation
  • Weight
  • Mass
  • Units of Measure for Weight and Mass
  • Conversion Factors
  • Example
  • Material Density

Chapter 6 - Mass Measurement Techniques

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Classification of Weighing Devices
  • Mass Measuring Technique: Direct vs. Indirect
  • Operator participation
  • Installation
  • Equilibrium Position
  • Direct Reading: Equal Arm Balance
  • Single Pan Optical-Mechanical and Electronic Balances
  • Substitution
  • Air Density, Tare Weights
  • Transposition

Chapter 7 - Dimensional Calibration: Precision scaled instruments

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Vernier devices: Calipers, Height gages
  • Protractors
  • Digital dimensional devices: Calipers, Height gages & similar devices
  • Micrometers: Caliper
  • Applications
  • Calibration
  • Supermicrometers
  • Class Exercise: Calibration of Micrometers and Calipers
  • Force: Concept of Weight, Gravity correction
  • Force gages & transducers
  • Torque: Terminology
  • Torque tools
  • Calibration
  • Torque analyzers
  • Viscosity
  • Hardness
  • Tester calibration
  • Traceability

Chapter 8 - Laser Interferometry: Light as the Length Standard

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Wavelength
  • In Phase vs. Out of Phase Waves
  • Two-Freq. Interferometry
  • Mixing Sinusoids
  • Types of Interferometers
  • Michelson Interferometer
  • Measurement Capabilities
  • Measurement Accuracy
  • System Diagram
  • Measurement Optics—Linear Interferometer vs. Angular Interferometer
  • Measuring Flatness, Squareness
  • Wavelength-Compensated Accuracy
  • Transducer vs. Calibrator
  • Laser Interferometry for Transducer Applications
  • Deadpath Error
  • Alignment Principles

Chapter 9 - Fixed Gauging: Principles

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Go and No Go Gauging

Chapter 10 - Reference Planes—Calibration of Flatness: Surface plates

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Optical flats
  • Planointerferometry
  • Class Exercise: Use of Optical Flats

Chapter 11 - Dimensional Standards

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Gage Blocks: Style, Type, Class, Uses
  • Wringing
  • Calibration
  • Linear Measuring machines
  • Electronic comparators
  • High precision cylinders
  • Class Exercise: Gage Block Selection

Chapter 12 - Measurement of Angles: Angle Gage Blocks

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Autocollimators: Applications Small angles
  • Theodolites
  • Levels: Use of levels
  • Reversal Techniques
  • Calibration
  • Inclinometers
  • Class Exercise: Using A Precision Level

Chapter 13 - Cylindrical Rings and Internal Cylinders

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Ring Classes and Tolerances
  • Tolerances
  • Ring Gage Measuring Techniques
  • Tapping, Sliding, Rolling
  • Precision and Amplification
  • Geometry Measurements
  • XXX Rings

Chapter 14 - Threads and Cylindrical Rings

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Thread Calibration
  • Thread Elements
  • Master Thread Setting-Plug Gages
  • Tolerances
  • ANSI B1.2 1983
  • “W” Tolerance Set Plugs
  • Measuring Machines for External Threads
  • Three Wire Method
  • Measurement Uncertainty in Thread Measurements

Chapter 15 - Other Geometries: Cylinders, Threads and Spheres—Dimensional Nightmares

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Cylinders: Wires, Plugs, Pins, etc.
  • Definitions: Measurement, Cylinder, Roundness
  • Cylinder Geometry
  • Error Budget for Cylinder Calibration

Chapter 16 - ISO Standard 17025 in Calibration Laboratories

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix B - Metrology Reference, Technical Organizations

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Summary, Final Review, Award of Certificates for Successful Completion

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Revised 180807