130 Metrology Concepts

For whom intended  This course is for engineers, managers and technicians who are involved in standards and calibration laboratories and for others who want a clear understanding of the wide range of activities involved in metrology.

This course is applicable to individuals from a wide range of industries such as Defense, Manufacturing, Utilities, Electronics, Automotive, Medical, Telecommunications, Computers, Aerospace and Universities.

Definition of the KilogramObjectives  To provide a basic understanding of the wide range of activities encompassed by personnel working in standards and calibration laboratories. It covers the measurement process, types and correct use of measurement and test equipment, and measurement standards. It provides an opportunity for students to learn about measurement uncertainty and risk analysis. The course includes the procedures necessary to set up and operate a calibration program.

Brief Course Description  Students will receive an in-depth understanding of the most effective methods of establishing and running a first class Standards and Calibration Laboratory. They will also receive an insight into dealing and communicating with industry related organizations such as NIST, ASQC, NCSL etc. and implementing procedures required by ISO 9004, ISO 10012 and ANSI/ASQC/NCSL Z540-1 standards

Students are expected to participate in classroom discussions, to work out classroom examples, to read the text and perform nightly review problems, and to undergo preliminary and final reviews.

Diploma Programs  This course is required for TTi’s Environmental Engineering Specialist (EES), Climatic Test Specialist (CTS), Electronic Design Specialist (EDS)Instrumentation Test Specialist and Metrology/Calibration Specialist (MCS) Diploma programs. It may be used as an optional course for any of TTi’s other Specialist Diploma Programs.

Prerequisites  There are no formal prerequisites for this course. Supervisors are invited to contact TTi on prospective attendees' backgrounds and needs.

Text  Each student will receive 180 days access to the on-line electronic course workbook. Renewals and printed textbooks are available for an additional fee.

Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs  Class hours/days for on-site courses can vary from 14-35 hours over 2-5 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.

OnDemand  OnDemand Internet Complete Course 130 features nine hours of video as well as more in-depth reading material. All chapters of course 130 are also available as OnDemand Internet Short Topics. See our on-line course outline for details.

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Course Outline

To Begin - First-Day Quiz

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Measurement Process

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • What is Metrology?
  • The Measurement System
  • Systems of Units
  • Units of Measurement
  • Coherent System
  • Defined / Derived Units
  • Absolute System of Units
  • Gravitational System of Units

Chapter 2 - Metrication / The Metric System (SI)

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Metrication
    • Soft Conversion Example
    •  Hard Conversion Example
  • Engineering Standards
  • Reasons for Changing to Metric Units
  • Costs of Metrication
  • Benefits of Metrication
  • Metrication in the U.S.A.
  • The International System (SI)
    • SI Base Units
    • SI Supplementary Units
    • SI Derived Units
    • SI Numerical Prefixes
  • Coherence
  • Absolute System
  • Additional Guidance
  • Metric Exercise

Chapter 3 - Calibration Program

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OnDemand Short Topics$200.00
  • Calibration Program - Set of Operations
  • Historical: MIL-STD-45662A
  • ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994
  • Comparison of compliance documents
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
  • Organization and Management
  • Quality System, Audit and Review
  • Personnel
  • Accommodations and Environment
  • Equipment and Reference Materials
  • Calibration Status
  • Measurement Traceability & Calibration
  • Calibration Methods (Procedures)
  • Handling of Calibration Items
  • Calibration Records
  • Certificates and Reports
  • Sub-contracting and Outside Supplies and Services
  • Laboratory Accreditation
  • Additional Guidance

Chapter 4 - Measuring and Test Equipment

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Definition
  • Measuring Instruments
    • General Purpose M&TE
    • Special Purpose M&TE
  • Dimensional Gages
  • Automatic Test Equipment (ATE)
  • Applicable Quality Standards
    • ISO 9000 Quality Standards

Chapter 5 - Measurement Standards and Traceability

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OnDemand Short Topics$100.00
  • Definition
  • Classification of Standards
  • Traceability
  • Responsible Organizations for Measurement Standards
  • SI Base Units
  • Definition of the Meter
  • Interferometer
  • Optical interference (simplified)
  • Definition of the kilogram
  • Definition of the second
  • Coordinated Universal Time scale
  • Definition of the Ampere
  • Current Balance Principle
  • Voltage References
  • Resistance References
  • Definition of the kelvin
  • Triple Point of Water
  • Definition of the Candela (cd)
  • Definition of the Mole
  • U.S. Customary Units
  • Additional Guidance

Chapter 6 - Measurement Uncertainty

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OnDemand Short Topics$150.00
  • Purpose of a Measurement
  • Common Terms
  • Accuracy Concept
    • Exercise 1: Bullseye Target Analysis
    • Expressing Accuracy
  • Classification of Errors
    • Student Exercise 2: Variations—What Events are Random?
    • Random Error Sources
    • Systematic Error Sources
    • Instrumental Errors
    • Environmental Errors
    • Observational Errors
    • Student Exercise 3: Reduction  of Observer Bias
  • Evaluating Measurement Uncertainty
  • ISO Definitions
  • Categories of Uncertainty Components
    • Type A—Statistical Evaluations
      • Normal (Bell) Curve
      • Homework 2: Random Data (Tossing Coins)
      • Experimental Standard Deviations
      • Example: Standard Deviation Calculation
      • Efficiency of the Arithmetic Mean
    • Other estimates of random error
      • Type B—Evaluations other than Statistical
      • Rectangular Uniform Distribution
      • Type B Transformation Factors
  • Sensitivity Coefficients
  • Combining Standard Uncertainties (u)
  • Expanded Uncertainty
  • Summary of Uncertainty Evaluation
  • Uncertainty Budget
  • A final thought from the GUM
  • Additional Guidance
  • Software Applications

Chapter 7 - Risk Management

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Purpose of a Measurement
  • Measurement Decision Risks
    • Acceptable levels of risk
    • Simplified Strategies
    • Low Risk Strategy
  • Statistical Reasoning
  • “Implied Risk”
    • Military Standards
    • Industry Standards
    • ISO Standard
  • Accuracy Ratios
  • Guardbanding
    • Guardband Factors for equivalent risk
  • False Reject Risks
  • Additional Guidance
  • Software Applications

Chapter 8 - Treatment of Data

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OnDemand Short Topics$100.00
  • Data Treatment Basics
    • Significant Figures
    • Propagation of Precision
    • Rounding off Insignificant Figures
    • Precision in Expressing Measurement Results
  • Curve Fitting
    • Equation for straight line
    • Linear Regression
    • Linearity testing
  • Drift Elimination
    • Loop Method Comparison
    • Sequential method
  • Measurement Assurance Program (MAP)
    • Measurement Process
    • MAP Guidance Documents
  • Other SPC metrology applications
  • Data Acquisition and Automation
    • Software Quality System
    • Software Verification
    • Configuration Control
    • Software Records, Backup and Access Control
  • Additional Guidance

Chapter 9 - Measurement Techniques / Considerations

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Types of Measurement
  • Considerations in Dimensional Measurement
    • Temperature effects in length measurements
    • Nominal differential expansion equations
    • Compensation and Residual Uncertainty
    • Misalignment—Cosine Error
    • Abbé offset error
    • Contact Deformation / Deflections
    • Vibration Control
  • Considerations in Physical Measurement
    • Volumetric Expansion
    • Gravitational Influences
    • Air Buoyancy
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Hysteresis
  • Considerations in Electrical Measurement
    • Grounding
    • Shielding
    • Guarding
    • Contact Resistance
    •  Thermal EMFs
  • Additional Guidance

Appendix A - Bibliography of Textbooks and Reference Material

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix B - Technical Organizations / Reference Materials

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix C - ISO 9000

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D - Definitions and Notation

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix E - Measurement Uncertainty Budget

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Summary - Final Review

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00

Award of Certificates for Successful Completion

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Revised 6/8/18