166 Applied Measurements

For Whom Intended  Engineers, scientists, and managers. This course will be of interest to personnel involved in making or understanding experimental test measurements.

Brief Course Description  This course provides the participant with the engineering concepts for the whole measurement system. It covers climatic measuring systems and reviews dynamic theory, which is essential for a better understanding of the measurand under consideration.

Transducers are discussed, as are the principles of the Wheatstone bridge, which is a basic tool for many measurement applications. The problems of signal noise, accuracy and error are covered in some depth before continuing on to spectral analysis, sampling and discussion of aliasing problems, filter types and anti-aliasing solutions.

The uncertainty surrounding the value of the measurand is discussed and an introduction to statistics as applied to engineering is covered.

One of the most difficult tasks for the measurement engineer is the selection of the proper instrumentation system. A procedure for attaining this goal is discussed and a typical instrumentation selection list developed.

While calibration is beyond the scope of this course, a procedure for calibrating a sensor device is developed and discussed.

Diploma Programs  This course is re­­quired for TTi’s Data Acquisition & Analysis Specialist (DAS), Electronic Telecommunications Specialist (ETS), Instrumentation Test Specialist (ITS), Me­chan­ical Design Specialist (MDS) and Met­ro­lo­gy/Calibration Specialist (MCS) Diploma Pro­grams, and may be used as an elec­tive for any other TTI specialist diploma prog­ram.

Related Courses Course 166/164 combines most of Course 166 with most of Course 164. Course 166/164 is available as a Complete Internet OnDemand course.

Prerequisites  Students should have completed TTi’s Course 163 Instrumentation for Test and Measurement or the equivalent. This course is aimed toward individuals actively involved in related technical fields. An understanding of basic measurement theory is required.

Text  Each student will receive 180 days access to the on-line electronic course workbook. Renewals and printed textbooks are available for an additional fee.

Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs  Class hours/days for on-site courses can vary from 14-35 hours over 2-5 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.

Complete Internet OnDemand Course 166 features over 8 hours of video as well as more in-depth reading material. All chapters of course 166 are also available as OnDemand Internet Short Topics. See the  course outline below for details.

Course Outline

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Measurement Engineering

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Definitions
  • Preparing to Make Measurements
  • Open and Closed Loop Systems
  • Analog and Digital
  • Transfer of Energy
  • Measurement System Responses

Chapter 2 - Understanding Decibels (dB) and Octaves

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Decibels
  • Power and Voltage Ratios
  • Conversions
  • Adding in dB
  • Reference Levels for decibel Notation
  • Octaves
  • 1/3 Octave Bandwidth Levels

Chapter 3-1 - Climatic Measurements: Temperature

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00

Chapter 3-2 - Climatic Measurements: Humidity

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00

Chapter 3-3 - Climatic Measurements: Pressure

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OnDemand Short Topics$100.00

Chapter 3-4 - Climatic Measurements: Flow

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00

Chapter 4 - Review of Dynamic Theory

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Laws of Motion
  • Weight, Mass and Gravity
  • Force, Mass and Acceleration
  • Work, Power
  • Energy
  • Linear and Angular Displacement; Linear Velocity
  • Tangential Acceleration
  • Torque
  • Stress and Strain
  • Simple Tension or Compression
  • Shear Strain

Chapter 5 - Transducers

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Mechanisms
  • Displacement
  • Principles
  • Force Summing
  • Piezoelectric Transduction
  • Dynamic Sensors
  • Frequency Response
  • Acceleration Response
  • Vibration Transducers

Chapter 6 - Wheatstone Bridges

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Basic Laws of Networks
  • Voltage Divider Circuit
  • Methods of Measurement
  • Voltage-Sensitive and Current-Sensitive Bridges
  • Constant-Current Bridges
  • Bridge Sensitivity
  • Three-Wire Bridge
  • Effects of Temperature
  • Shunt Calibration
  • Voltage Insertion Calibration
  • Strain Gage Compensation
  • AC Bridges-Classic Inductance, Capacitance Bridges

Chapter 7 - Reducing Signal Noise

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Unwanted Signals
  • Shield Strategies
  • Twisted Pair
  • Electrical Noise: High Signal Source Impedance
  • Low Signal Source Impedance
  • Source Shunting
  • Parallel Conductors
  • Twisted Conductors
  • Microvolt-Level Signal Cables
  • Ground Loops
  • Eliminating Multiple Grounds
  • A Stable System Ground
  • Amplifier Guard Shield
  • Common-Mode Rejection

Chapter 8 - Accuracy and Error

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OnDemand Short Topics$50.00
  • Accuracy, Calibration and Error Assessment
  • Common Terms
  • Accuracy vs. Precision
  • Classification of Errors
  • Error Assessment
  • Improper Functioning of Instruments
  • Effect of Transducer on Process
  • Dual Sensitivity Errors
  • Minimizing Error

Chapter 9 - Spectral and Fourier Analysis

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OnDemand Short Topics$100.00
  • Spectral Analysis
  • Sinusoidal, Complex and Random Signals
  • Phase of Frequency Domain Components
  • Time and Frequency Domain
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Adding Two Signals-Using RMS Values
  • The Fourier Transform
  • Discrete Fourier Analysis
  • FFT
  • Classification of Types of Data
  • Random Signals
  • Correlation
  • Cross-Correlation, Coherence
  • Auto Spectral Density (ASD)
  • Power Spectral Density
  • Calculating RMS From PSD

Chapter 10 - Signal Analysis and Aliasing

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Signal Acquisition
  • Shannon's Theorem and Corollaries
  • Aliasing Viewed as Folding
  • Where Does the Aliased Data Appear?
  • Example .. Sine Signal
  • Aliasing/Multiple Folding
  • Digitizing "Rules"
  • Interpolation ..When is it Needed?

Chapter 11 - Filters

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OnDemand Short Topics$100.00
  • Integrating and Differentiating Circuits
  • Acoustic Weighting
  • Bandpass Filter
  • Undamped (high Q) vs. Damped (low Q) Filters
  • Selective Filtering
  • Characteristics of Butterworth, Chebyshev and Bessel Filters
  • RC and LR Circuits
  • Anti-Alias Filters
  • Brick-Wall vs Real Filters
  • Aliasing Analysis
  • Anti-Alias Filters-Hardware
  • Filter "Construction"
  • How Filters Behave
  • Group Delay
  • Filter Cutoff Frequency
  • Sampling Ratio Calculation
  • FR/FD Ratio

Chapter 12 - Measurement Uncertainty and Introduction to Statistics

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Error and Uncertainty
  • ISO Definitions
  • Simple Statistics of Measurement
  • Probability-Definitions
  • Data Distributions
  • Cumulative Frequency Curve Summation
  • Degrees of Freedom
  • Mean, Median and Mode
  • Standard Deviation
  • Variance
  • Normal Distribution
  • Gaussian Curve
  • Confidence
  • Gaussian (s-Normal) Distribution
  • Special Definitions for Random Vibration
  • Computing the Standard Deviation-Example
  • Confidence Levels

Appendix A - Glossary

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix B - Standard Deviation Calculation Worksheet

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix C - Typical Instrumentation Selection Check List

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D - Transducer Calibration

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Summary and overview

Final Review

Award of Certificates for successful completion

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Revised 180806